The following assumptions of modern western science need to be replaced since these are contrary to the most recent findings in science as well as the religious beliefs and cultural traditions of the great majority of humanity:
1. Western science has evolved the only valid scientific assumptions and method, therefore being the only possible science.
2. (a) There is only one reality: the physical universe, composed as it is of matter and energy
(b) Reality is everything that is physical, measurable, or deducible from scientific observations and everything else must be considered unreal.
3. The material universe is accidentally assembled from the smallest physical units into larger structures and interactive patterns through the workings of discoverable natural laws.
4. (a) The material world exists independently of mind
(b) Mind or consciousness evolved within the pyhsical world, which existed before its appearance and continues to exist independent of consciousness.
5. (a) The universe is non-living, without purpose or intelligence, describable as configurations of matter and energy.
(b) The universe has no intrinsic meaning or purpose.
6. All research purpoting to show pyschic phenomnea as real is unscientific.
7. We are insignificant as a planet and as a species.
8. (a) Evolution has no purpose, happening through random mutation and natural selection.
(b) There is no intelligent design in evolution
9. Life can come from non-life
10. Scientific explanations are always more valid than religious and spiritualistic explanations.
Assumptions to replace the above:
1R: Non-westrern cultures, ancient or surviving, have devised valid sciences.
2R: (a) There are many levels of reality of which the physical world is only one of them.
(b) Non-physical reality (spiritual and subtle/psychic) is also within the reach of human experience.
3R: The material world may be variously described as having come into existence through a cosmic consciousness, divine creation or manifestation.
4R: (a) Concsiousness is a fundamental aspect of reality.
(b) Consciousness gives rise to matter, rather than the other way around
5R: The universe is a living reality possesing intelligence and is purposive.
6R: Psychic phenomena are an integral part of cosmic reality \, and any research seeking to show their reality may therefore be scientific.
7R: (a) Human species is the most significant of all living human things in the universe.
(b) Human being is a microcosm, essentially containing all the worlds external to himself/herself.
(c) The planet earth is especially meaningful for the human species.
8R: (a) The universe is a living system.
(b) Evolution is purposive.
9R: The source of life is transcedent to the material world.
10R: Scientific explanations are complementary to and corroborative of religious and spiritual explanations.
Foundational Assumptions of Modern Western Science
Osman Bakar, PhD
Profesor Emeritus Falsafah Sains